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$1.10 per Canadian - 2002 Survey on the Cost of Canada's Constitutional Monarchy | La Ligue monarchiste du Canada
 




The Cost of Canada’s Constitutional Monarchy



$1.10 per Canadian



Commissioned by The Monarchist League of Canada, 2002
A complete Revision of a Survey first issued in 1999

Badge of the Monarchist Leauge
Written by Sean Palmer & John Aimers
Principal Research by Sean Palmer

A Supplement to Canadian Monarchist News, Autumn 2002

Survey Highlights

  • Canada’s vice-regal representatives undertake over 5000 engagements a year.


  • A visibly-expanded and enhanced Governor Generalcy that recalls Canada’s history, reflects Canada’s present and affirms Canada’s distinct identity into the future served Canada’s 2001 population of 31,081,900 at a cost of 51 cents per person.


  • Lieutenant Governors’s offices were assisted in their service to the Crown and so to Canada’s 2001 population of 31,081,900 at a cost to the federal government of 7.2 cents per person.


  • The Lieutenant Governors were assisted in their service by the Provinces at a cost of 17.5 cents per person.


  • In the first edition of this Study, undertaken in 1999, based on the official government Estimates, we reported that the cost of The Canadian Crown for 1998-99 totaled $22,415,222. Based on a July 31, 1998 population of 30,301,200, we calculated that the cost of the Crown was 74 cents per Canadian. Since actual spending proved lower by about $500,000, the cost in reality was 72 cents per Canadian.

    This second edition of The Cost of Canada’s Constitutional Monarchy, based on the same official government Estimates, now calculates that the cost of The Canadian Crown for 2001-02 totaled $34,127,653. Based on StatsCan population estimate of 31,081,900 as of July 1, 2001, the cost of the Crown is $1.10 per Canadian.

    The increase is almost entirely due to the vastly reinvigorated programme undertaken by the Governor General, so returning Rideau Hall’s real-dollar budget to be only slightly greater than that of 13 years ago, and to the NCC’s capital works program of refurbishment of the infra-structure of the historic buildings and grounds of Rideau Hall itself.


  • By way of comparison, the Canadian Monarchy costs less than the Senate, one-half the budget of The Canadian Museum of Civilization or of the Canadian Tourism Commission, about the same as the cost of operating the National Library of Canada or the cost of providing security for the Summit of the Americas in Quebec City or the operation of the Federal Court of Canada.


  • Overseas, the ceremonial Italian Presidency costs citizens of the Republic $2.40 per head.


  • $1.31 is the cost per head of the Monarchy to Britons, in return for which The Queen gives back the equivalent of $5.46 to each subject in revenue from the Crown Estate which The Queen surrendered to the Treasury at the beginning of her Reign.





The Canadian Crown

It may surprise many Canadians to learn that under normal circumstances, the Dominion’s taxpayers do not spend a single cent to assist in meeting the routine expenses of their Queen. This is true because Her Majesty presides over the 15 Realms of which she is Sovereign from offices located in Buckingham Palace and with the help of her Household in London, the costs of which operation are provided through the Civil List, which is itself a return by the Westminster Parliament of a small part of the revenue of Crown Lands formally surrendered at the beginning of each Reign. Thus, the direct maintenance of Canada’s Head of State is not the responsibility of any Canadian government.

However, because Her Majesty cannot be present in Canada all the time, she appoints representatives who act in her name to perform the constitutional and social responsibilities of the Crown, the principal one of which is to provide oversight of the constitutional operation of this nation’s 11 sovereign governments. On the advice of her Prime Minister, the Queen – in respect of the Governor General – and her Governor General – in respect of the Lieutenant Governors – appoints representatives who exercise the powers of the Crown on a day-to-day basis in the name of the Sovereign.

The Governor General is appointed for a time in office customarily no less than five years. At the federal level, Her Excellency’s responsibilities are similar to those of the Monarch. She kindles pride in the accomplishments and bravery of Canadians, civilians and military alike, by presenting Awards, Decorations and other recognition on behalf of the Queen, the fount of honour. She acts also as guardian of the national conscience – “to encourage the spirit of nationhood and warn against its neglect” – as the late Rt Hon Vincent Massey put it. She performs ceremonial functions, oversees the constitutional functioning of the federal government, summons and dissolves Parliament, selects a Prime Minister, offers advice, encouragement and warning to the government, and exercises the Queen’s reserve powers if need arises. The Governor General in council appoints, in the Queen’s name, a Lieutenant Governor for each of the nation’s provinces. These Lieutenant Governors represent the Queen in the right of each province.

The cost of the Monarchy to Canada, then, is not a salary or expense which benefits or supports the Sovereign or the Royal Family. Rather the costs are incurred on behalf of an institution, the structure of government called “constitutional monarchy,” and to all those officers who execute the necessary functions of such a system of government. What follows is the cost of maintaining these officers, their households, offices, and staff. In short, this is the surprisingly-limited cost of what constitutes the bedrock element of the Canadian system of government.

Rideau Hall
RIDEAU HALL

The Demands of Vice-Regal Service


While examining the costs of the Canadian Monarchy, it is important to keep in mind the substantial demands placed upon the vice-regal office-holder, witness the number of engagements each fulfils over the course of a year. It is worth noting, as well, that vice-regal service is no sinecure, nor a Monday-Friday 9 am - 5 pm "job." Rather, engagements take place throughout a seven-day week, with many carried out on weekends and weekday evenings.

Admittedly, cataloguing the number of events the Lieutenant Governors attend in their respective provinces is at best an inexact science. Nor does it reflect on the quality of a Governor's service. There is some variation in the definition of the term "function" from office to office. Furthermore, while some Lieutenant Governors keep very accurate records of the number of functions attended each year, other offices do not routinely do so. Thus in this context an "engagement" refers to an event attended by the Lieutenant Governor. Their Honours may be either the host, or a guest, and may perform a range of tasks from delivering a short speech, to presiding over a lengthy ceremony. Despite those qualifications, the sheer - and by all accounts, increasing - volume of Vice-Regal engagements testify to the significance and increased popularity of the Canadian Crown.

Engagements Undertaken by Vice-Regal Representatives 2001


British Columbia: 314
Alberta: 255
Saskatchewan: 350
Manitoba: 504
Ontario: 452
Quebec: 400
New Brunswick: 750
Nova Scotia: 600
Prince Edward Island: 345
Newfoundland & Labrador: 200
Rideau Hall: 900
Total: 5070

Governor General

In the absence of the Monarch herself, her representative the Governor General stands in her place. The federal government grants Rideau Hall a sum of money in each annual budget in order to enable its occupant to perform essential duties. .

These funds provide "for the payment of the Governor General's salary, for the costs of the Governor General's annual program including visits in Canada and abroad, for citizen access and visitors services program at Rideau Hall and the operation of the office and residences." In the Estimates for the year beginning in April of 2002, the government granted the Governor General's Office an Operating Budget of $13,132,000. Added to this was $3,557,000 for "honours". These honours provide "for the administration of programs in the "National Honours System," which includes the Order of Canada, the Order of Military Merit, the Meritorious Service decorations, Bravery Decorations and certain other recognitions to citizens such as the Caring Canadians Award. In addition, $625,000 was granted for "expenditures in respect of the activities performed by former Governors General" who are given offices and small budgets in support of their continuing public activities. .

When combined, these figures total $17,679,000, which is comprised of the following expenditures, shown in the table on the following page.

Estimates for the Governor General 2002-2003

Personnel: $10,071,000
Transportation & Communication: $2,200,000
Information: $890,000
Professional and special services: $2,000,000
Rental: $200,000
Purchased repair and maintenance: $30,000
Utilities, materials and supplies: $1,453,000
Construction and/or acquisition
of machinery and equipment: $470,000
Transfer payments: $365,000
Total: $17,679,000

Another way of breaking down the budgetary allocation for the Governor General is as follows:

Program expenditures: $15,558,000
Salary of the Governor General: $106,000
Annuities payable under the Governor General's Act: $354,000
Contributions to employee benefit plans: $1,661,000
Total: $17,679,000

These figures are particularly noteworthy in that they illustrate that support for the duties a Governor General performs makes up the bulk of the expenditure. Such functions as receiving foreign dignitaries, honouring worthy citizens, and supporting good causes throughout the communities of the land occur in every civilized nation, republic or monarchy. Of special interest, however, is that the Head of State's representative is paid a salary of only $106,000. However, this salary is not taxable – so it represents a remuneration of approximately $145,000-150,000 paid to an ordinary taxpayer. Based on these charts, the federal government has anticipated the Governor General’s office requiring $17,679,000 to carry out its essential functions. This assumption is based on previous year’s funding requirements. As Public Accounts 01/02 are not yet available to the public, it is necessary to examine the 2000/2001 accounts. Unlike the Estimates, Public Accounts do not reveal the final financial statements for the year in any more detail than that presented below.

2000-2001 Governor General Expenditures in the Public Accounts

Personnel: $9,581,000
Transportation and Communication: $1,807,000
Information: $606,000
Professional and Special Services: $1,623,000
Rentals: $206,000
Purchased Repair and Maintenance: $29,000
Utilities Materials and Supplies: $1,457,000
Acquisition of Machinery and Equipment: $346,000
Transfer Payments: $313,000
Total Expenditure: $15,968,000

1999-2000 Governor General Expenditures in the Public Accounts

Personnel: $8,645,000
Transportation and Communication: $1,485,000
Information: $924,000
Professional and Special Services: $1,947,000
Rentals: $184,000
Purchased Repair and Maintenance: $19,000
Utilities Materials and Supplies: $1,385,000
Acquisition of Machinery and Equipment: $472,000
Transfer Payments: $255,000
Total Expenditure: $15,316,000

1998-1999 Governor General Expenditures in the Public Accounts

Personnel: $7,650,000
Transportation and Communication: $1,143,000
Information: $513,000
Professional and Special Services: $1,458,000
Rentals: $142,000
Purchased Repair and Maintenance: $19,000
Utilities Materials and Supplies: $1,277,000
Acquisition of Machinery and Equipment: $558,000
Transfer Payments: $203,000
Total Expenditure: $12,963,000

1997-1998 Governor General Expenditures in the Public Accounts

Personnel: $6,914,000
Transportation and Communication: $1,048,000
Information: $276,000
Professional and Special Services: $1,191,000
Rentals: $132,000
Purchased Repair and Maintenance: $20,000
Utilities Materials and Supplies: $1,236,000
Acquisition of Machinery and Equipment: $120,000
Transfer Payments: $260,000
Total Expenditure: $11,198,000

To better gauge spending trends, it is helpful to examine the amount of funds recorded as necessary to maintain the Governor General beyond recent years. For the fiscal year 1987-1988, the public accounts recorded an expenditure as follows:

1987-1988 Governor General Expenditure in Public Accounts

Programs and establishment: $8,438,162
Honours: $1,624,831
Salary of the Governor General: $99,550
Contributions to employee benefit plans: $908,000
Annuities payable under the Governor General's Act: $604,034
Former Governors General Grants: $12,000
Total: $11,198,000
(It should be noted that the figures for 1987-88 and 1997-98 would appear to indicate identical expenditures. In fact, this is not the case as the 1987-88 figures must be adjusted for inflation. As a result, in terms of actual dollar value, the budget in 1987-88 was several million dollars larger than it was in 1997-98. Furthermore, the fact that both numbers are the same should not be construed to indicate a decade-long freeze in the budget. Though the budget has varied widely over time, there was no freeze. The fact that the numbers are identical is entirely coincidental.)

Expenses for Rideau Hall and La Citadelle

An essential feature of the Canada's Crown is the provision of two Official Residences for The Governor General. These are not expenses of his or her office or programme, but the maintenance and capital requirements to operate two historic Canadian buildings: Rideau Hall, in Ottawa; and La Citadelle, in Quebec City. As is true of heritage properties throughout the world, these buildings would have to be maintained, and quite likely would be occupied by government officials even if Canada were a republic.

Rideau Hall

The cost of maintaining and upgrading the fabric and facilities of Rideau Hall is borne, as it is for five of the other six Official Residences of the federal government, by the budget of The National Capital Commission.

As reported in the Winter 2000 edition of Canadian Monarchist News, the NCC announced on October 23, 1999 a 10-year, $58 million plan to maintain and upgrade Canada's Official Residences. The capital expenditures for envisioned for Rideau Hall included expansion of the popular Visitors' Centre due to a greatly-increased number of visitors, work on greenhouses, replacement of chairs - and above all, a $4.4 million project to repair masonry and the wrought-iron fence which surrounds the 80-acre, 27-building property.

La Citadelle

Expenses for the Quebec home of The Governor General, which, thanks to regular periods of residence in the Old Capital Their Excellencies are using far more frequently than their predecessors, are covered by the budget of the Department of Public Words and Government Services.







In fact, with inflation taken into account, the $15,968,000 expenditure for the Governor General's Office in 2000-2001 was lower than the expenditure incurred 13 years ago, which in constant dollars totaled $16,332,980 (1987-88). The 2001-02 estimates, moreover, totaling $17,679,000, reveal a constant dollar increase of only .6% annually over those 13 years. These figures are remarkable, given the recent enormous expansion in the demands on the Governor General and her office, which include:
  • greatly-expanded domestic travel with public levees, walks and a more visible vice-regal presence throughout Canada
  • significantly-increased foreign travel entourages as Their Excellencies bring with them delegations of Canadian businesspeople, artists and thinkers to engage with their hosts abroad
  • continuing expansion of the Canadian Honours system (a good part of the expenditure relates to travel costs for those receiving recognition).
  • hugely-extended usage of Rideau Hall and its grounds as venues for popular entertainment and both public and official hospitality.
In other words: a visibly-expanded and enhanced Governor Generalcy that recalls Canada's history, reflects Canada's present and affirms Canada's distinct identity into the future served Canada's 2001 population of 31,081,900 at a cost of 51 cents per person.

Federal Expenditure on behalf of Lieutenant Governors

The Federal Government's responsibility for the expenses of the Constitutional Monarchy such as Canada's does not end with the Governor General. For provincial purposes a Lieutenant Governor represents the Queen and provides the formal Executive for the Province as much as the Governor General does for the Dominion Government. At the same time, the Lieutenant Governors are appointed by The Governor General, usually for a time in office of five years, although this is very often extended. Thus their salaries, and some of their expenses, are underwritten by the federal government. In the 2002-2003 budget, Ottawa anticipated spending a total of $1,361,705 on behalf of the Lieutenant Governors.

This expenditure can be divided into three major areas. First, the largest portion of the funds pays the Lieutenant Governors' salaries. Each Lieutenant Governor receives an annual indemnity of $101,900. The salaries for the Lieutenant Governors in 2001-2002 totaled $1,011,000, but on January 1, 2002, they were accorded an $800 cost-of-living adjustment. Unlike the case of the Governor General's salary, the Lieutenant Governors' are fully taxable. (At the present time, Her Honour, the Lieutenant Governor of New Brunswick does not accept a salary.)

The second area of federal expenditure is a grant for expenses incurred for functions within the province's capital city. The third amount of money is an allowance for "Out of Capital City Expenses". Both these sums are designed to assist the Lieutenant Governors in carrying out their responsibilities. Because each province is unique in terms of its geography and population distribution, there is considerable variation in the amount each actually receives from the federal government, the figures shown to the right being theoretical allocations from the total funding available.

Federal Expenditures in Support of the Lieutenant Governors
(2002-2003 Estimates)

Lieutenant Governor of British Columbia
Lieutenant Governor's Salary: $101,900
Grant for In Capital City Expenses: $21,950
Allowance for Out of Capital City Expenses: $14,382
Total: $138,232

Lieutenant Governor of Alberta
Lieutenant Governor's Salary: $101,900
Grant for In Capital City Expenses: $19,950
Allowance for Out of Capital City Expenses: $14,300
Total: $136,150
Lieutenant Governor of Saskatchewan
Lieutenant Governor's Salary: $101,900
Grant for In Capital City Expenses: $19,055
Allowance for Out of Capital City Expenses: $14,382
Total: $135,337

Lieutenant Governor of Manitoba
Lieutenant Governor's Salary: $101,900
Grant for In Capital City Expenses: $19,055
Allowance for Out of Capital City Expenses: $14,382
Total: $135,337

Lieutenant Governor of Ontario
Lieutenant Governor's Salary: $101,900
Grant for In Capital City Expenses: $21,950
Allowance for Out of Capital City Expenses: $14,382
Total: $138,232

Lieutenant Governor of Quebec
Lieutenant Governor's Salary: $101,900
Grant for In Capital City Expenses: $21,950
Allowance for Out of Capital City Expenses: $14,382
Total: $138,232

Lieutenant Governor of New Brunswick
Lieutenant Governor's Salary: $101,900
Grant for In Capital City Expenses: $16,158
Allowance for Out of Capital City Expenses: $14,382
Total: $132,440

Lieutenant Governor of Nova Scotia
Lieutenant Governor's Salary: $101,900
Grant for In Capital City Expenses: $16,158
Allowance for Out of Capital City Expenses: $14,382
Total: $132,440

Lieutenant Governor of Prince Edward Island
Lieutenant Governor's Salary: $101,900
Grant for In Capital City Expenses: $14,999
Allowance for Out of Capital City Expenses: $14,382
Total: $131,281

Lieutenant Governor of Newfoundland & Labrador
Lieutenant Governor's Salary: $101,900
Grant for In Capital City Expenses: $21,950
Allowance for Out of Capital City Expenses: $14,382
Total: $138,232



According to these figures the Federal government expects that it will require $1,361,705 during the current fiscal year in order to cover the Lieutenant Governors' salaries and its share of their expenses. However, there are additional costs for Ottawa to meet. In addition to salaries and expense allowances, the Department of Canadian Heritage also provides payments required by the "Lieutenant-Governors Superannuation Act." This outlay provides pensions for former Lieutenant Governors, and is expected to cost $550,000 this year. There are further "Supplementary Retirement Benefits" for the former Lieutenant Governors which will likely cost approximately $182,000.

It is important to note that the pensions and Supplementary Benefits are not ex gratia payments, but are funded by contributions made in the customary fashion by the Lieutenant Governors while in office: 6% of their annual salary and an additional 1% towards the Supplementary Benefit, which enables indexation of the pension. This money is paid into the general revenues of the Government, but when the former Governors draw their pensions the charge is to the specific Canadian Heritage account.

Thus, the total amount the federal government has budgeted to cover its obligations to the Provincial Lieutenant Governors for 2002-2003 is $2,093,705.

An important note must be made regarding these figures for previous years. "In capital city" grants are listed in the Federal Main Estimates and Accounts, but the "out of city" allowances are not. They are provided here thanks to the gracious assistance of the Ministry of Canadian Heritage. These funds are part of a larger sum of federal expenditure which is not broken down in the Estimates. This, unfortunately, makes it difficult if not impossible to calculate an accurate federal expenditure on the Lieutenant Governors for previous years. It is also important to note that the Lieutenant Governors, along with the Governor General, accepted a wage freeze between the years 1991 and 1996. Federal expenditures to defray the the Lieutenant Governors'"out of capital travel" costs have actually decreased over the past five years. In 1998-1999 the amount given to each province was $14,380. In 1999-2000 the amount increased to $39,380. It remained at that level for 2000-2001 and for 2001-2002. However this year the amount dropped again to $14,380. As this amount is inadequate to cover the costs for which it is intended, it is being renegotiated at this time.

Lieutenant Governors's offices were assisted in their service to the Crown and so to Canada's 2001 population of 31,081,900 at a cost to the federal government of 7.2 cents per person.

NOTE
Commissioners of the Canadian Territories


Many Canadians are under the impression that the Commissioner appointed for each Territory wield authority in the same way as the Governor General and Lieutenant Governors. However, this is not the case. While Territorial Commissioners do exercise similar executive and reserve powers, and some recent cases provide interesting parallels between their functions in this respect and those potentially exercisable by the Queen's representative, it must be made quite clear that they do not represent the Sovereign, nor do they preside over sovereign governments. Commissioners are not appointed by the Queen, but by the Governor in Council on the recommendation of the Minister of Indian Affairs and Northern Development. Thus federal expenditures for the Commissioners (salaries and travel subsidies) do not fall within the ambit of this survey.

Provincial Expenditure on Lieutenant Governors


Of course, the federal government does not provide for the entire cost of the Lieutenant Governors. In that they perform essential functions as an integral part of the provincial governments, many of their expenses are paid for by the provinces. However, there is no uniformity amongst the Provinces in providing this support, and even less in reporting the related expenditures.

The Lieutenant-Governors' Offices across the country are afforded varied resources. For example, for 2002-2003 British Columbia has budgeted $1,548,000 for the Lieutenant-Governor's establishment. Prince Edward Island has allocated $355,000. The temptation is to rationalize the difference as reflecting nothing more than these two provinces' differing territory and population. However, this would be inaccurate. While those factors certainly do affect the funding required by a Lieutenant Governor, they are not the sole reasons for discrepancy.

Across the country, ten different Lieutenant Governors are granted widely-differing range of facilities to aid them in their duties. Eight provinces offer an official residence, for example. However even this seemingly cut and dried statistic must be interpreted carefully. Each province has built residences or office suites to differing specifications. Three provinces offer a residence and a separate office while the others each provide one or the other. Other complicating factors include the uses the residences are put to. For example, in British Columbia, as in other provinces, Government House is not for the exclusive use of Her Honour, but is made available for functions hosted by the Premier and Cabinet. Then too, it is important to underline that Government Houses are nearly all historic buildings, which any government, even in a republic, would likely wish to use and need to maintain.

Provincial Expenditures on Lieutenant Governors 2000-2001


The most recent Public Accounts which are readily accessible across the country are for the 2000-2001 fiscal year. From those accounts the following expenditures and their breakdowns can be drawn.
Saskatchewan - 2000-2001
Personal Services: $188,000
Travel: $39,000
Contract Services: $35,000
Communications: $14,000
Supplies & Services: $82,000
Equipment: $5,000
Total: $363,000

Manitoba - 2000-2001
Salaries: $107,700
Other Operating Expenses: $178,100
Total: $285,800

Ontario - 2000-2001
Salaries: $423,074
Transportation and Communication: $11,579
Services: $32,874
Supplies and Equipment: $20,084
Discretionary Allowance: $105,800
Total: $678,800

Quebec - 2000-2001
Salaries: $440,500
Operating Expenses: $464,600
Capital: $24,300
Total: $929,400

New Brunswick - 2000-2001
Personal Services: $186,393
Other Services: $31,305
Materials and Supplies: $10,458
Property and Equipment: $51,400
Total: $283,823

Nova Scotia - 2000-2001
Salaries and Benefits: $329,000
Operating Costs: $81,000
Total: $410,000

Prince Edward Island - 2000-2001
Administration: $25,273
Equipment: $3,539
Materials, Supplies & Services: $146,092
Professional & Contract Services: $87,147
Salaries: $214,093
Travel & Training: $2,905
Total: $479,049

Newfoundland & Labrador - 2000-2001
Salaries: $389,710
Transportation and Communication: $18,473
Supplies: $30,599
Purchased Services: $52,202
Property, Furnishing & Equipment: $2,978
Total: $493,962

The remaining two provinces, British Columbia and Alberta require specific examination of and explanation for their expenditures:

British Columbia - 2000-2001
Salaries: $517,000
Employee Benefits: $93,000
Public Servant Travel: $1,000
Professional Services: $134,000
Information Systems: $38,000
Office Expenses: $34,000
Operating Equipment and Vehicles: $12,000
Building Occupancy Charges: $538,000
Grants: $77,000
Recoveries: ($60,000)
Total: $1,384,000

It is obvious that the Lieutenant Governor's Office in British Columbia has the largest apparent expenditure of all the provinces. The reason for this is not that Her Honour the Lieutenant Governor incurs greater expenses than her colleagues, but that every expense is billed to her office, expenses which in many provinces would be absorbed in other budgets, and neither allocated or reported in terms of a vice-regal expense. Indeed, the largest factor in determining the amount which will appear next to the Lieutenant Governor's heading in the financial accounts is determined as much by the different book-keeping practices in each province - or alterations from time to time within a province's system of accounts - as by any particular responsibilities a government might ask the Vice-Regal representative to undertake.

British Columbia is a prime example of the effects of varied accounting schemes. For example, with reference to 1988-1989, British Columbia apparently spent $366,404 to maintain its Lieutenant Governor. (Adjusted for inflation, that figure is $487,317 in today's dollars) However, in recent years the apparent expenses for BC's Lieutenant Governor have been much higher, indeed, the highest in the country. Minor increases in expenditure caused a slight rise in costs, but by far the bulk of the increase falls under a new heading. "Building Occupancy Expense" which was originally absorbed by another department. This cost, some $538,000 in 2000-2001, is now charged to the Lieutenant Governor's office, which could easily lead the uncritical or untutored reporter to allege a huge increase in spending when in fact none exists.

Such a drastic apparent increase in costs is easily detected and can then be explained. However, other provincial governments may make similar but less noticeable changes at any time. Thus this report emphasizes not only that it is difficult to compare fairly the costs of Lieutenant Governors' establishments across the country, it is now also very difficult to compare present costs to past ones.

Alberta - 2000-2001
Total: $199,000

Alberta is also in a special situation, but one very different from British Columbia's. Instead of every charge being applied to the Lieutenant Governor's budget, very few are! The Office of the Lieutenant Governor in Alberta shares many facilities, and resulting costs, with other departments of the government, primarily the Executive Council. As a result the Alberta government budgets only for items such as the Office's salaries, equipment and supplies, for the lease of the official car, and its fuel. Much of the transportation budget, for example, is shared with other government personnel. This is why Alberta appears to have the smallest annual expenditure of all provinces. It is important to remember however, that this does not indicate a lack of financial support for the work of Her Honour.

Estimates of Provincial Expenditures on Lieutenant Governors
2001-2002 & 2002-2003


The table below compares this year's estimated budget for each of the offices to the estimated budget set last year. Establishment 2001-2002 2002-2003
Estimate Estimate Increase

British Columbia $1,488,000; $1,548,000 - 3.9% increase

Alberta $255,000; $255,000 - 0% increase

Saskatchewan $375,000; $390,000 - 3.8% increase

Manitoba $249,800; $254,700 - 1.9% increase

Ontario $777,900; $993,300 - 21.7%* increase

Quebec $1,173,400; $1,220,800 - 3.9% increase

New Brunswick $300,000; $310,000 - 3.2% increase

Nova Scotia $398,000; $410,000 - 2.9% increase

Prince Edward Island $506,630; $461,600 - 8.9% increase

Newfoundland & Labrador $529,400; $547,500 - 3.3% increase

Total $6,053,130; $6,390,900 - 5.3% increase

* The increase in expenditure expected over the coming year in Ontario is due to a $170,000 increase in the column titled "Services". This jump is largely accounted for by the installation of Ontario's new Lieutenant Governor, as well as the need for revising the web site, and producing new stationery and official photographs. Unlike the two most recent Lieutenant Governors, His Honour was not a resident of Toronto at the time of his appointment. As a result, accommodation has been rented. The increase in Ontario's budget from 2000-2001 to 2001-2002 was similar, although for a completely different reason. That increase was due to the office's assumption of costs which were not previously charged to the Lieutenant Governor. These included IT, telecommunications, and fuel and maintenance for the official vehicle.

The Lieutenant Governors were assisted in their service by the Provinces (total population 31,081,91 in 2001) at a cost of 17.5 cents per person.

To assist in understanding the figures below, a table revealing the relative sizes of and support given to each vice-regal establishment is supplied in the latter sections of this report.





Royal Homecomings


After the costs of the Vice-Regal establishments across the country have been tallied, there remains one further area of expense to the Canadian people in maintaining their structure of government. That occurs when members of the Royal Family return home to Canada to undertake official duties. However, it should be noted that most such Royal visits are now deemed "working visits," and are paid for entirely by the host organizations, so incurring no government expenditure other than security assistance which by convention is routinely provided by host countries to any internationally protected person based on a current threat assessment.

Members of the Royal Family who vacation in Canada (as have, notably, The Prince of Wales and his sons, and The Duke of York) are entirely responsible for their expenses.

When members of the Royal Family come to Canada by government invitation, there are costs which must be met. The federal government provides for the cost of air travel on Canadian Forces aircraft, traveling expenses incurred by federal officials attached to the tour, as well as hospitality functions hosted on behalf of the Government of Canada. Also Ottawa's responsibility in such cases are expenses incurred by members of the Royal Household traveling to Canada for a reconnaissance tour, as well as the cost of printing the official program, and the media itinerary program.

Each province which will be receiving the Royal Party also bears some financial responsibility. The province is responsible for the expenses of its officials, hospitality expenses incurred on behalf of the province, as well as any medical costs that may be required by members of the Royal Party.

The federal and provincial governments share equally the expenses for the accommodation of the Royal Party which also usually includes office accommodation for their secretaries, motorcade vehicles, and the operations of media centres. It is important to note that other costs incurred by host organizations on an official itinerary are the responsibilities of those organizations, whether they are governmental or private.

Federal Expenses Incurred through Royal Homecomings


The federal government budgets $450,000 annually for royal homecomings. In the event that the total amount is not needed, it is transferred to another department requiring funds.

Figures listed below illustrative of federal expenses for official Royal visits are provided courtesy the Canadian Heritage Department's Office of Ceremonial and Symbols Promotion. These are expenses for which it has been responsible, and do not include costs incurred by other agencies of government such as the RCMP, Canadian Forces, and National Defense, which tend to absorb such costs in their annual operating budgets.

1996
The Prince of Wales traveled to Ottawa, and then through Ontario, Manitoba and New Brunswick.
Total Federal expense: $298,000

1997
The Queen traveled to Ottawa, Newfoundland and Labrador, and Ontario.
Total Federal expense: $895,900

1998
The Prince of Wales (accompanied by Prince William and Prince Harry) traveled to British Columbia.
Total Federal expense: $897,176

2000
The Earl & Countess of Wessex traveled to Prince Edward Island
Total Federal expense: $310,591

2001
The Prince Wales traveled to Ottawa, Saskatchewan and Yukon
Total Federal expense: $589,259

2002
The Queen made a coast-to-coast Golden Jubilee homecoming to Canada, journeying to Nunavut, British Columbia, Manitoba, Ontario, New Brunswick and Ottawa.

Total Federal expense: Unknown as of press time. Media reports suggest that $5 million has been allocated for this extensive tour. Welcoming members of Canada's Royal Family on official Royal Tours 1996-2001 has cost each Canadian 9.8 cents (based on median population as of 1999). Including the estimated cost of the Queen's nationwide Jubilee homecoming, the cost of official Royal Tours 1996-2002 to the same population amounts to 26 cents per person.

Volunteer Service to the Crown


The analysis of the Cost of the Canada's Constitutional Monarchy undertaken in 1999 was incomplete in one significant respect, which the current study seeks to remedy. That is, into the welter of financial statistics must be included an accounting of the volunteer service to the Vice-Regal establishments on the part of many individuals. Apart from reflecting The Sovereign's own commitment to public service, manifesting their loyalty to the Crown, and encouraging others to do likewise, their gifts of time, energy and ingenuity as they perform essential functions in the vice-regal establishments save Canadians a considerable sum.

All the vice-regal offices rely on volunteers in order for those establishments to continue operating to the high standards for which they are known. The volunteers assist in a wide range of tasks, from gardening to serving as Aides-de-Camp.

Volunteer Hours Per Annum


Due to variations in record-keeping, some vice-regal offices keep track of volunteers according to the calendar year, while others according to the fiscal year. In any event, the figures provided in this study cover one year, whether calendar or fiscal, and so make it possible to determine the approximate number of volunteer service to the Crown typically given across Canada in the space of one year.

Aides de Camp (referred to as Honorary Aides de Camp in some provinces) assist the Lieutenant Governors on a rotating basis at virtually all vice-regal functions. They guide the Lieutenant Governor through events, assist with protocol, and even carry extra supplies or gifts given to their Honours at functions. Though some are civilian, they are usually drawn from a wide variety of government organizations. The various branches of the Canadian Forces provide most aides, but so do the RCMP, the Ontario Provincial Police, and St. John's Ambulance. Where applicable, these Aides retain their regular salary paid by the force to which they belong during their time serving the vice-regal office. Thus, the work they carry out for the Lieutenant Governors' offices is not charged to those offices. Their essential functions would otherwise have to be paid for by the vice-regal offices and would dramatically impact their budgets.

The Governor General's Aides de Camp serve on a different basis, given the national dimensions of Her Excellency's mandate and the complex operation at Rideau Hall. Five AdeC's are seconded to Government House, each for a period of two years. Unlike the provincial Aides de Camp, the Governor General's AdeCs work full time for the establishment.

Over 1000 Canadians give volunteer service to the Canadian Crown. Significant opportunities exist to expand this cadre of individuals for the benefit not only of the vice-regal establishments but also the community in general.

Volunteer Service to the Crown 2001


 Aides de ChampOther VolunteersVolunteer Hours
Rideau Hall*2450
British Columbia39310^9839^
Alberta25n/a1214
Saskatchewan22***1000
Manitoba18150**8505
Ontario47161998
Quebec70201200(est)
New Brunswick35200**1200
Nova Scotia14n/a299
Prince Edward Island10201035(est)
Newfoundland & Labrador142750
TOTALS:29472027,490

NOTES
*As explained above, Rideau Hall uses five full-time Aides supplied by HM's Canadian Forces.
**Manitoba and New Brunswick's large pool of volunteers relates to these provinces' counting large volunteer groups - such as musicians, or Scouts - in their totals. Other provinces use such volunteers, but limit their record-keeping to individual volunteers who assist on a recurring basis. Some keep no records. The anomaly goes to the discrepancies detailed earlier in respect of the difficulty of making comparisons amongst the vice-regal offices. In the event, the total number of volunteers nationally is doubtless substantially understated.
****Saskatchewan's Government House is also a Museum. A substantial number of volunteers assist the work of the Government House Historical Society.
^The incredible number of volunteers in the establishment of the Lieutenant Governor of British Columbia is largely due to the impressive, 36-acre garden maintained at Government House. Most of these volunteers belong to the "Friends of Government House Gardens Society".
Annual Total Costs for the Monarchy in Canada


By adding the cost of the Governor General's Office, the Official Residences of The Governor General, the federal and provincial expenditures on behalf of the Lieutenant Governors and the cost of Homecomings to Canada by members of The Royal Family, the total cost of maintaining Canada's constitutional monarchy can be determined.
Conclusion


The cost of the constitutional monarchy in Canada is an expense not easily calculated. There is no consistency in expense recording practices, and even if there were, the vagaries of governmental organization and accounting reporting make numbers at best an at best an approximation. The variety of requirements, facilities, and expenses incurred by vice-regal representatives across the country can only be matched by the diversity of the Canadian population itself. The search for figures revealing the cost of maintaining the Canadian system of government is a far ranging one, which incorporates many governments and departments from coast to coast. Some additional expenditures, such as the occasional conferences of Lieutenant Governors' Private Secretaries, take place at irregular intervals.

In the first edition of this Study, undertaken in 1999, based on the official government Estimates, we reported that the cost of The Canadian Crown for 1998-99 totaled $22,415,222. Based on a July 31, 1998 population of 30,301,200, we calculated that the cost of the Crown was 74 cents per Canadian. Since actual spending, as revealed in the above table, proved lower by about $500,000, the cost in reality was 72 cents per Canadian.





For Comparison

What do Canadians pay for other national institutions and icons? And for some of the routine expenses of government?

  • RCMP spokeswoman Cst. Rochelle Patenaude informs Canadian Monarchist News that the 2001-02 budget for The Musical Ride is $3.5 million (cost of salaries and operations on tour) The Ride raises $500,000 annually for charity.


  • Capt. Stephanie Godin, Media Liaison at DND, informs CMN that the 2002 operating budget of the Snowbird Aerial Exhibition Team runs $3.5 million (cost of fuel, operational support, maintenance and administrative salaries)


  • The Federal Government's 2002-03 Estimates report that the budget for The Canadian Museum of Civilization is $76,221,000; The Athletes Assistance Program is $16,000,000; The National Battlefields Commission is $6,140,000


  • In 2000, The Auditor-General of Canada estimated that the Parliament Hill renovation project will cost $1.4 billion ($1,400,000,000)


  • In 2000-01, The Department of Indian Affairs spent $58.7 million on a settlement with The Squamish First Nation


  • In 2000-01, the Department of Public Works, Canadian Information Office, spent $23.6 million in support of "a citizen-focused approach to government communications."


  • In 2001-02, the Department of the Solicitor General, spent $33.5 million to fund security costs as the Summit of Americas, Quebec City


  • The Federal Government announced in its 2001 Budget an expenditure of $200,000,000 to support its "Government On-Line Strategy"


What do the Other Components of Parliament Cost?

The Senate - $63,901,000;
The House of Commons - $312,419,000;
The Library of Parliament - $26,251,000 - as per the 2002 Estimates.

This second edition of The Cost of Canada's Constitutional Monarchy, based on the same official government Estimates, , now calculates that the cost of The Canadian Crown for 2001-02 totaled $34,127,653. Based on StatsCan population estimate of 31,081,900 as of July 1, 2001, the cost of the Crown is $1.10 per Canadian. The increase is almost entirely due to the vastly reinvigorated programme undertaken by the Governor General, so returning Rideau Hall's real-dollar budget to be only slightly greater than that of 13 years ago, and to the NCC's capital works program of refurbishment of the infra-structure of the historic buildings and grounds of Rideau Hall itself.

The authors would like to express their appreciation for the prompt and cheerful help of members of vice-regal households and the staffs of parliamentary and legislative libraries as well as many other public servants in the provincial capitals and in Ottawa, especially in the Department of Canadian Heritage, whose assistance was invaluable in their research.